8fbe887f647de303ad9294a627fbfe5d
[译] SwiftUI 官方教程 (六)

动画视图与转场

使用 SwiftUI 时,无论用作何处,我们都可以单独为视图添加动画,或者对视图的状态添加动画。 SwiftUI 为我们处理所有动画的组合、重叠和中断的复杂性。

在本文中,我们会给包含图表的视图设置动画,跟踪用户在使用 Landmarks app 时行为。我们会看到通过使用 animation(_:) 修饰符为视图设置动画是多么简单。

下载项目文件并按照以下步骤操作,也可以打开已完成的项目自行浏览代码。

  • 预计完成时间:20 分钟
  • 项目文件:下载

1. 给单个视图添加动画

当我们在一个视图上使用 animation(_:) 修饰符时, SwiftUI 会动态的修改这个视图的可动画属性。一个视图的颜色、透明度、旋转、大小以及其他属性都是可动画的。

1.1 在 HikeView.swift 中,打开实时预览来测试显示和隐藏图表。

确保在本文中过程中都打开了实时预览,这样就可以测试到每一步的结果。

1.2 添加 animation(.basic()) 修饰符来设置按钮的旋转动画。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    self.showDetail.toggle()
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .padding()
                        //
                        .animation(.easeInOut())
                        //
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

1.3 添加一个在图表显示时让按钮变大的动画。

animation(_:) 会作用于视图所包装的所有可动画的修改。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    self.showDetail.toggle()
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        //
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        //
                        .padding()
                        .animation(.easeInOut())
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

1.4 把动画类型从 basic() 改成 spring()

SwiftUI 包含带有预设或自定义缓动的基本动画,以及弹性和流体动画。我们可以调整动画的速度、在动画开始之前设置延迟,或指定动画的重复。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    self.showDetail.toggle()
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                        //
                        .animation(.spring())
                        //
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

1.5 试着在 scaleEffect 方法上方添加另一个动画方法来关闭旋转动画。

围绕 SwiftUI 尝试结合不同的动画效果,看看都有哪些效果。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    self.showDetail.toggle()
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        //
                        .animation(nil)
                        //
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                        .animation(.spring())
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

1.6 在继续下一节前,删除两个 animation(_:) 修饰符。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    self.showDetail.toggle()
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        //
                        //
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                        //
                        //
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

2. 将状态的改变动画化

现在我们已经学会如何给单个视图添加动画,是时候给状态的值的改变添加动画了。

这一节,我们会给用户点击按钮并切换 showDetail 状态属性时发生的所有更改添加动画。

2.1 将 showDetail.toggle() 的调用包装到 withAnimation 函数中。

showDetail 属性影响的按钮和 HikeDetail 视图现在就都有了动画过渡。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    //
                    withAnimation {
                    //
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

减缓动画,看看 SwiftUI 动画是如何可以中断的。

2.2 给 withAnimation 方法传递一个 4 秒的基础动画。

我们可以传递相同类型的动画给 animation(_:) 修饰符的 withAnimation 函数。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    //
                    withAnimation(.easeInOut(duration: 4)) {
                    //
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

2.3 尝试在动画期间打开和关闭图表视图。

2.4 在进入下一节前,从 withAnimation 函数中移除缓慢动画。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    //
                    withAnimation {
                    //
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
            }
        }
    }
}

3. 自定义视图的转场

默认情况下,视图通过淡入和淡出过渡到屏幕上和屏幕外。我们可以使用 transition(_:) 修饰符来自定义转场。

3.1 给满足条件时显示的 HikeView 添加一个 transition(_:) 修饰符。

现在图标会滑动显示和消失。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    withAnimation {
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
                    //
                    .transition(.slide)
                    //
            }
        }
    }
}

3.2 将转场提取为 AnyTransition 的静态属性。

这可以在展开自定义转场时保持代码清晰。对于自定义转场,我们可以使用与 SwiftUI 所用相同的 . 符号。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

//
extension AnyTransition {
    static var moveAndFade: AnyTransition {
        AnyTransition.slide
    }
}
//

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    withAnimation {
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
                    //
                    .transition(.moveAndFade)
                    //
            }
        }
    }
}

3.3 换成使用 move(edge:) 转场,这样图表会从同一边滑入和滑出。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

extension AnyTransition {
    static var moveAndFade: AnyTransition {
        //
        AnyTransition.move(edge: .trailing)
        //
    }
}

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    withAnimation {
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
                    .transition(.moveAndFade)
            }
        }
    }
}

3.4 使用 asymmetric(insertion:removal:) 修饰符来给视图显示和消失时提供不同的转场。

HikeView.swift

import SwiftUI

extension AnyTransition {
    static var moveAndFade: AnyTransition {
        //
        let insertion = AnyTransition.move(edge: .trailing)
            .combined(with: .opacity)
        let removal = AnyTransition.scale
            .combined(with: .opacity)
        return .asymmetric(insertion: insertion, removal: removal)
        //
    }
}

struct HikeView: View {
    var hike: Hike
     private var showDetail = false

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            HStack {
                HikeGraph(data: hike.observations, path: \.elevation)
                    .frame(width: 50, height: 30)

                VStack(alignment: .leading) {
                    Text(hike.name)
                        .font(.headline)
                    Text(hike.distanceText)
                }

                Spacer()

                Button(action: {
                    withAnimation {
                        self.showDetail.toggle()
                    }
                }) {
                    Image(systemName: "chevron.right.circle")
                        .imageScale(.large)
                        .rotationEffect(.degrees(showDetail ? 90 : 0))
                        .scaleEffect(showDetail ? 1.5 : 1)
                        .padding()
                }
            }

            if showDetail {
                HikeDetail(hike: hike)
                    .transition(.moveAndFade)
            }
        }
    }
}

4. 给复杂的效果组合动画

单击条形下方的按钮时,图形会在三组不同的数据之间切换。在本节中,我们将使用组合动画为构成图形的胶囊提供动态、波动的转场。

4.1 把 showDetail 的默认值改成 true ,并把 HikeView 的预览固定在画布中。

这让我们在其他文件中制作动画时依然能在上下文中看到图表。

4.2 在 GraphCapsule.swift 中,添加一个新的计算动画属性,并将其应用于胶囊的形状上。

GraphCapsule.swift

import SwiftUI

struct GraphCapsule: View {
    var index: Int
    var height: CGFloat
    var range: Range<Double>
    var overallRange: Range<Double>

    var heightRatio: CGFloat {
        max(CGFloat(magnitude(of: range) / magnitude(of: overallRange)), 0.15)
    }

    var offsetRatio: CGFloat {
        CGFloat((range.lowerBound - overallRange.lowerBound) / magnitude(of: overallRange))
    }

    //
    var animation: Animation {
        Animation.default
    }
    //

    var body: some View {
        Capsule()
            .fill(Color.gray)
            .frame(height: height * heightRatio, alignment: .bottom)
            .offset(x: 0, y: height * -offsetRatio)
            //
            .animation(animation)
            //
    }
}

4.3 将动画改为弹性动画,使用初始速度让条形图跳跃。

GraphCapsule.swift

import SwiftUI

struct GraphCapsule: View {
    var index: Int
    var height: CGFloat
    var range: Range<Double>
    var overallRange: Range<Double>

    var heightRatio: CGFloat {
        max(CGFloat(magnitude(of: range) / magnitude(of: overallRange)), 0.15)
    }

    var offsetRatio: CGFloat {
        CGFloat((range.lowerBound - overallRange.lowerBound) / magnitude(of: overallRange))
    }

    var animation: Animation {
        //
        Animation.spring(dampingFraction: 0.5)
        //
    }

    var body: some View {
        Capsule()
            .fill(Color.gray)
            .frame(height: height * heightRatio, alignment: .bottom)
            .offset(x: 0, y: height * -offsetRatio)
            .animation(animation)
    }
}

4.4 加快动画速度,缩短每个小节移动到新位置所需的时间。

GraphCapsule.swift

import SwiftUI

struct GraphCapsule: View {
    var index: Int
    var height: CGFloat
    var range: Range<Double>
    var overallRange: Range<Double>

    var heightRatio: CGFloat {
        max(CGFloat(magnitude(of: range) / magnitude(of: overallRange)), 0.15)
    }

    var offsetRatio: CGFloat {
        CGFloat((range.lowerBound - overallRange.lowerBound) / magnitude(of: overallRange))
    }

    var animation: Animation {
        Animation.spring(dampingFraction: 0.5)
            //
            .speed(2)
            //
    }

    var body: some View {
        Capsule()
            .fill(Color.gray)
            .frame(height: height * heightRatio, alignment: .bottom)
            .offset(x: 0, y: height * -offsetRatio)
            .animation(animation)
    }
}

4.5 根据 胶囊在图表上的位置为每个动画添加延迟。

GraphCapsule.swift

import SwiftUI

struct GraphCapsule: View {
    var index: Int
    var height: CGFloat
    var range: Range<Double>
    var overallRange: Range<Double>

    var heightRatio: CGFloat {
        max(CGFloat(magnitude(of: range) / magnitude(of: overallRange)), 0.15)
    }

    var offsetRatio: CGFloat {
        CGFloat((range.lowerBound - overallRange.lowerBound) / magnitude(of: overallRange))
    }

    var animation: Animation {
        Animation.spring(dampingFraction: 0.5)
            .speed(2)
            //
            .delay(0.03 * Double(index))
            //
    }

    var body: some View {
        Capsule()
            .fill(Color.gray)
            .frame(height: height * heightRatio, alignment: .bottom)
            .offset(x: 0, y: height * -offsetRatio)
            .animation(animation)
    }
}

4.6 观察自定义动画在图表之间转场时是如何营造波动效果的。

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